Technology Gaps and Economic Effects of Minimum Quality Standards
|저자||Han Eol Ryu||발행일||제 호 (2019.06.28)|
Since the advent of the GATT regime in the mid-1990s, declines in applied tariff rates and increases in non-tariff measures (NTMs) have been observed. The possibility of NTMs being deployed as protectionist measures in lieu of conventional tariffs has been studied in some literature, for example in Moore and Zanardi (2011) and Beverelli et al. (2014).
However, the use of NTMs for protectionist purposes is strictly prohibited by the World Trade Organization (WTO). Their use is only permitted in the protection of human health and the environment, or for the prevention of deceptive practices and so forth. Nevertheless, significant efforts are being made to resolve non-tariff barriers (NTBs) in bilateral or multilateral agreements because in some countries NTMs have been utilized for protectionist purposes, camouflaged by superficially legitimate rhetoric. And even when they are used for legitimate purposes, their limiting effects on trade can be more significant than those of a tariff.